The significant growth in many human diseases and disorders in recent decades, including breast and prostate cancer, male infertility and diabetes is connected to the rising levels of exposure to mixtures of some chemicals in widespread use, according to a review of recent literature commissioned by the European Environment Agency (EEA).
Chemicals which disrupt the hormone system – also known as ‘endocrine disrupting chemicals’ (EDCs) – can be found in food, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, household products and cosmetics.
EEA executive director Jacqueline McGlade said: “Scientific research gathered over the last few decades shows us that endocrine disruption is a real problem, with serious effects on wildlife, and possibly people. It would be prudent to take a precautionary approach to many of these chemicals until their effects are more fully understood.”
The ‘Weybridge +15 (1996-2011) report on endocrine disruptors’ was launched at Brunel University outside London on Thursday. It is the result of an international workshop that evaluated the findings of the last 15 years of research. The report follows the 1996 Weybridge report and associated workshop, where the problem of EDCs was first comprehensively discussed by regulatory authorities and scientists together.
The report says that rates of endocrine diseases and disorders, such as some reproductive and developmental harm in human populations, have changed in line with the growth of the chemical industry, leading to concerns that these factors may be linked.
“For example, the current status of semen quality in the few European countries where studies have been systematically conducted, is very poor: fertility in approximately 40% of men is impaired. There is also evidence of reproductive and developmental harm linked to impairments in endocrine function in a number of wildlife species, particularly in environments that are contaminated by cocktails of chemicals that are in everyday use.”
“Based on the human and wildlife evidence, many scientists are concerned about chemical pollutants being able to interfere with the normal functioning of hormones, and in turn play a causative role in certain diseases and disorders. If this holds true, then these ‘early warnings’ signal a failure in environmental protection that should be addressed.”
The report shows clearly that there is strong evidence of harm from EDCs in some wildlife species and in laboratory studies using rodent models for human health. However, the effects of EDCs on humans may be more difficult to demonstrate, due to the length, cost and methodological difficulties with these types of studies – so wildlife and animal studies may be seen in some cases as an early warning of the dangers.
Scientific understanding is further complicated because mixtures of similarly acting EDCs in combination may contribute to an overall effect, while each of these chemicals alone may not cause harm. These factors make it hard for scientists to identify thresholds of exposure below which there are no effects.
Still, there is a large body of evidence linking chemical exposure to thyroid, immune, reproductive and neurological problems in animals, and many of the same or similar diseases and disorders have been observed to be rising in human populations.
Both animals and humans may be exposed to these chemicals in the environment, or via water or the food chain where the chemicals can build up.
Possible effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals
• The link between some diseases and EDCs is now accepted. For example, exposure to oestrogen or to oestrogenic EDCs is an accepted risk factor for breast cancer, endometriosis, fibroids and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women.
• Breast cancer rates are increasing in almost all industrialised countries. The majority of these cases are due to lifestyles and environmental exposures, rather than specific genetic factors.
• Some EDCs may also cause low quality semen. Detailed reviews of current knowledge show clearly that human male reproductive problems are increasing in many countries. There are large regional differences in semen quality. In some European regions approximately 40% of men suffer from reduced fertility while in others it is less than 10%. Laboratory studies show that the reproductive systems of a broad range of vertebrate species, for example polar bears and fish, and some invertebrate species such as some snails and oysters are susceptible to EDCs.
• Some studies have linked EDCs to thyroid disease. Thyroid cancer rates have increased by between 5% (Switzerland) and 155% (France), particularly in women, children and young adults.
• Several studies have also linked exposure to some EDCs with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, attention deficit disorder and diminished cognitive function in children. However, more work is needed in this area to confirm or refute theories involving the wider sphere of EDCs in modern commerce
• There is a trend towards the earlier onset of puberty in girls, which may be influenced by EDCs.
• Some persistent endocrine disrupting substances, such as DDT, TBT and PCBs – now banned or restricted in their use – have been shown to cause catastrophic declines in mollusc, seal and bird populations in some parts of the world as a result of their effects on reproduction. Scientists are concerned that many chemicals that are still in modern commerce also affect the human reproductive system.